First Report of Fusarium Wilt on Cavendish Bananas, Caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Tropical Race 4 (VCG 01213/16), in Vietnam

  • Authors : Hung, T.N.; Hung, N.Q.; Mostert, D.; Viljoen, A.; Chao, C.P.; Molina, A.B.

  • Document type : Journal article

  • Year of publication : 2017

  • Journal title : Plant Disease

  • Volume (number) : 102 (2)

  • Pages : 448-448

  • Peer-reviewed : Yes

  • ISSN : 0191-2917

  • Language(s) : English

  • Abstract : Fusarium wilt of banana, caused by the soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc), is a major constraint to banana production worldwide. A strain of the fungus that affects Cavendish and other dessert bananas in the tropics, called Foc tropical race 4 (TR4; VCG 01213/16), has been confined to five Asian countries (Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, mainland China, and Taiwan) for more than three decades. Cavendish production is now being expanded in Asia to Laos, Myanmar, and Vietnam, where local varieties still dominate the market. This is owing to an increase in Cavendish banana consumption and a decline in areas of production caused by Foc TR4 in China. The expansion of Cavendish production in Southeast Asia, however, has increased the risk of Foc TR4 being introduced into new countries. Leaf-yellowing symptoms typical of banana Fusarium wilt were observed in three provinces in northern Vietnam along the Red River that originates in the Yunnan province of China, namely Hanoi (October 2014), Hung Yen (October 2015), and Lao Cai (October 2015). When cut open, pseudostems displayed a dark-red to brown discoloration of vascular tissue, and the inner rhizome revealed a ring of yellow-brown staining. Samples of symptomatic strands from pseudostems were collected to identify the causal agent by morphological, molecular, and vegetative compatibility group (VCG) identification. The samples were first plated onto potato dextrose agar (PDA) containing streptomycin for fungal isolation. The cultures were then purified, single-spored, and maintained at the culture collection of the Department of Plant Pathology at Stellenbosch University in South Africa. Eight Fusarium isolates obtained were identified to species level on PDA and carnation leaf agar plates according to their cultural and spore morphology (Nelson et al. 1983). For molecular identification, total DNA was extracted and amplified with Foc TR4-specific primers (Dita et al. 2010) and Foc race 4-specific primers (Lin et al. 2009). VCG testing was performed according to the method of Puhalla (1985) by pairing nit-1 and nit-3 mutants of the isolates from Vietnam with nit-M testers of VCGs 01213, 01216, and 01213/16. Pathogenicity testing was performed by replanting Cavendish tissue culture plantlets at the six-leaf stage in sand mixed with corn powder, which was colonized by the individual Fusarium isolates from Vietnam, at a ratio of 19:1. Control plants were treated with sterile distilled water. The identity of the Vietnamese isolates was confirmed as F. oxysporum, whereas PCR and VCG analysis characterized six of them as VCG 01213/16 strains. After 6 weeks, plants inoculated with the VCG 01213/16 isolates produced typical symptoms of Fusarium wilt, so Koch's postulates were completed. The occurrence of Foc TR4 in Vietnam can have a significant economic impact to agricultural production, because investments were made to replace citrus, longan, and corn fields with Cavendish plantations. Foc TR4 also poses a threat to local banana varieties, and these varieties should therefore be evaluated for resistance to the fungus. The potential spread of Foc TR4 in Vietnam should be minimized by surveillance, public awareness campaigns, risk assessment, and containment efforts.


  • Open access : Yes

  • Document on publisher's site : open View article on publisher's site

  • Musalit document ID : IN180065

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