Pest risk assessment made by France on Fusarium oxysporum. f. sp. cubense considered by France as harmful in French overseas departments of French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique and Réunion - Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Plant Health



  • Authors : EFSA Panel on Plant Health,

  • Document type : Journal article

  • Year of publication : 2008

  • Journal title : EFSA Journal

  • Number : 668


  • Pages : 1-22

  • Peer-reviewed : Yes

  • ISSN : 1831-4732

  • Language(s) : English

  • Abstract : Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Plant Health was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on 30 pest risk assessments made by France on organisms which are considered by France as harmful in four French overseas departments, i.e. French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique and Réunion. In particular, the Panel was asked whether these organisms can be considered as harmful organisms for the endangered area of the above departments, in the meaning of the definition mentioned in Article 2.1. (e) of Directive 2000/29/EC and thus potentially eligible for addition to the list of harmful organisms in Directive 2000/29/EC. This document presents the opinion of the Panel on Plant Health on the full pest risk assessment conducted by France on Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. f. sp. cubense (E.F. Smith) W.C. Snyder & H.S. Hansen with French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique and Réunion considered as endangered area. F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense is responsible for Fusarium wilt (also known as Panama disease), which is one of the most destructive diseases of banana world-wide. Control of the disease is restricted to husbandry measures and cultivar resistance. F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense has been divided into races based on its pathogenicity on reference host cultivars. Among the most significant races of F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense pathogenic to edible banana, race 1 affects mainly the cultivar 'Gros Michel', race 2 affects bananas of the Bluggoe sub-group, race 4 affects all cultivars in the Cavendish sub-group grown in subtropical climates plus cultivars susceptible to races 1 and 2. F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense race 4 is commonly known as 'subtropical race 4'. F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense 'tropical race 4' (hereinafter T4) is a new variant, which was recognised in the early 1990s and is responsible for serious losses of cultivars in the Cavendish subgroup in some areas of tropical South East Asia. Both races 1 and 2 are reported to be endemic in the PRA area, while races 4 and T4 are not known to be present. Race 4 has been under quarantine regulation since 1992 for French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique and Réunion. The Panel examined in detail the risk assessment provided, and considered the accuracy and quality of the information provided and methods applied for pest risk assessment purposes. The review was based on the principles of the International Standard on Phytosanitary Measures ISPM No. 11: Pest risk analysis for quarantine pests, including analysis of environmental risks and living modified organisms (2004) by the International Plant Protection Convention (FAO, 2007b). Following a detailed analysis of the material provided in the pest risk assessment and after additional study of published information on the pathogen and the disease it causes, the Panel observes that: The document only cites one reference, which is a review article. As a consequence, statements in the pest risk assessment are not individually referenced or supported by verifiable scientific data. The risk assessor identifies the pest as F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense, which implies that all races are under consideration. However most of the document focuses only on races 4 and T4. This confuses the identity of the subject organism of the pest risk assessment. F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense, races 1 and 2 are reported to be present in most departments defined as the PRA area (i.e. French Guiana, Guadeloupe and Martinique) and are not reported to be under official control in the document. Races 4 and T4 are not known to be present in the PRA area. The Panel concludes that: Only the races 4 and T4 fulfil the criteria for a quarantine pest, as they are not known to occur in the PRA area and have the potential for establishment and spread and for negative economic consequences in the PRA area. In agreement with the document, the probability of entry of F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense races 4 and T4 into the PRA area on conventional planting material, from countries where the disease is present, would be high if present import restrictions were rescinded. In agreement with the document, the probability of establishment for F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense race 4, which attacks Cavendish cultivars in the subtropics, would be low, except for those parts of the PRA area with subtropical climate, where the probability for establishment of race 4 would be high. The probability of establishment for F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense race T4, which is able to attack Cavendish cultivars in the tropics, would be high (rather than "moderate"), as most of the endangered area has a tropical climate and no commercial Cavendish cultivars resistant to race T4 have yet been developed or tested in the French overseas departments. In agreement with the document, the potential economic impacts of races 4 and T4 would be 'high'. Plantations of dessert bananas for export and smallholdings and family gardens producing fruit for the local market or for home-consumption would suffer severe yield losses. Concerning social impacts, for Guadeloupe and Martinique there could be a reduction in employment in commercial plantations, whilst a potential disruption of subsistence production and consumption patterns could occur among smallholders and family gardens. The Panel, based on the information provided in the document and on additional literature consulted, concludes that F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense races 4 and T4 are appropriate for evaluation of pest risk management options for the endangered areas of French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique and Réunion, and thus potentially eligible for addition to the list of harmful organisms in Directive 2000/29/EC.

  • Keywords : FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM F. SP. CUBENSE; FRANCE; GUADELOUPE; MARTINIQUE; FRENCH GUIANA; REUNION; PEST RISK ANALYSIS; FUSARIUM WILT

  • Open access : Yes

  • Document on publisher's site : open View article on publisher's site

  • Musalit document ID : IN150019


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